Hand pumps are one of the best ways to access underground water sources. Boreholes are drilled into the ground in places with access to underwater reservoirs. After the piping is fitted as well as the hand pump, the motion of the pump creates suction in the pipe and the mechanism forces the water up to the surface. When water sources are really deep, electrical pumps are used. Ground water is often clean and the housing on the pump protects the water from contamination. The Aqua Initiative has funded hand pumps in Rwanda, Kenya and Afghanistan.